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Jet-Fueler Uncategorized Vape-Jet

How the Global CO₂ Shortage Affects Cannabis Oil Extraction

Industry Insight

For cannabis oil producers, the importance of CO2 cannot be understated. As the primary solvent in one of the most popular cannabis oil extraction methods in the industry today, the recent CO2 shortage has profound implications for oil production processes. With so much volatility in the market, let’s take some time to think about this CO2 dilemma and propose some solutions so oil producers can keep meeting customer demand while maintaining the same high-quality products consumers deserve. 

How did this CO2 Shortage Begin? 

As with any global shift in market availability, the reasons for the current CO2 situation are varied. Perhaps most significantly, the Russian invasion of Ukraine has created extensive oil and natural gas supply interruptions in Europe, leading to volatile petrochemical and agricultural markets which directly affect fertilizer production, of which food grade CO2 is a byproduct.  

This market uncertainty, tied to lack of supply, has already affected other industries close to cannabis. In the brewing industry, for instance, the impact of the CO2 shortage is already playing out, leading to increased input costs which have numerous upstream and downstream workflow ramifications.  

The Significance of CO2 for Vape Cartridge Producers

The benefits of using CO2 for cannabis oil extraction are well-documented, but it’s worth revisiting just how vital CO2 is for vape cartridge production.  

As the most common solvent for Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), CO2 earns its place because of multiple factors: 

  1. It is one of the safest non-polar solvents 
  2. It is more dependable during SFE for preserving the compounds found in cannabis 
  3. It can pull various cannabinoids from the plant through fractioning 

When Will the Cannabis Oil Extraction Industry Feel the Shortage?

[CO2 demand] from the cannabis industry, for cannabinoid and terpene extraction, [has] been growing quickly, and not enough new capacity is coming online to compensate.” – Craig Bettenhausen, “US faces COshortage” 

The worlds of cannabis production and retail are accustomed to fluctuating markets. Most post-legalization markets, for example, overinvest in production capacity leading to wholesale cost reductions. Dealing with lower prices isn’t new, and it usually leads to consolidation and restructuring until the supply and demand for cannabis come back into alignment. How is this CO2 shortage different, and how is it similar? 

Well, although it can be difficult to predict when and how certain industries will react to a decreased CO2 supply, there are some reasonable expectations of when we will start seeing the shortage affect the cannabis industry. 

The first people to feel the CO2 supply shortage will be grow and cannabis oil extraction facilities, especially when natural gas and oil consumption spike in winter (Butane Hash Oil extractors will likely feel this pain as well). Accordingly, all cannabis flower, extract, and distillate will probably see cost increases by the end of 2022, which will squeeze profit margins on vape cartridges. 

Of course, this spike in the price of natural gas during wintertime will undoubtedly be exacerbated by increased gas exports to Europe from North America. As energy costs inflate due to decreased supply and increased demand, input costs for cannabis cultivation, extraction, and refinement will rise, ultimately yielding lower margins on cannabis products across the board and increasingly small returns. 

In short, with high electricity costs, high CO2 costs, and high butane costs, every step in the cannabis product chain will be affected.  

So, What’s the Solution?

Wholesale and retail marijuana prices continue to fall in most states, with production often outpacing consumption… The glut of cannabis products and brands have retailers in many states increasingly discounting their merchandise in hopes of shrinking bulging inventories and boosting sales amid growing competition.” – Andrew Long, “Midyear State Cannabis Sales a Mixed Bag Across the United States

With such clear indicators of pesky inflation and increased input costs on the horizon, we ought to think of some solutions. After all, we shouldn’t just read this information and run to the closest bar. It’s what we do with the information going forward and how we use it to stay ahead of the curve and prepare for the uncertainty that matters. 

So, what can you do? 

Solution 01: Invest in Automation

As input costs rise due to CO2 and other raw materials—and oversupply issues continue for the cannabis industry—prices will continue falling, ultimately squeezing out many operators with high costs and low returns. In other words, cost reduction is key, and reducing labor costs with automation may be the only way to compete.  

Luckily, this solution is our specialty. At Vape-Jet, we manufacture the most advanced fully-automated (Vape–Jet) and semi-automated (Jet Fueler) vape cartridge-filling systems on the market. In fact, we’ve discussed how vape cartridge automation is one of the most proactive, crucial investments you can make in your cartridge filling process quite a bit. 

Not only do our vape cartridge-filling machines fill your cartridges faster, more accurately, and help you overcome cartridge hardware challenges, our team also provides unmatched after-sales support to keep your operation running. That means higher productivity, decreased labor input, and satisfied customers. 

Solution 02: Plan for a New Pricing Strategy

As Krista Raymer writes in her article, “to combat price compression, cannabis retailers can use psychology and consumer behavior tendencies to guide them toward certain products or shopping patterns. One important tactic to do this is through the lens of price perception.”  

Krista lists three strategies cannabis companies can use to stay ahead: ‘visualization of pricing,’ ‘in-store signage,’ and ‘insignificant numbers.’ Read detailed descriptions of these strategies in “Dispensary Pricing Strategy: How to Combat Price Compression.” 

Solution 03: Solventless Cannabis Oil Extraction

As we discussed earlier, CO2 is a dependable solvent for Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE). But what if you moved your workflow away from solvents? Well, it is safe to assume that solventless processes will see a significant boost if solvents inflate high enough. If you want to learn more about this cannabis oil extraction method and how it affects production, product quality, and operation costs, start with this article—“Extracting the Bottom Line.” 

And That’s Where We Come In

As we watch the CO2 shortage impact other industries around us, cannabis businesses should start preparing for the necessary strategies (cultivation, production, sales, etc.) to combat the inevitable results of price increases in our industry. Automation is one of the most straightforward ways to set your business up for success now and especially when uncertainty starts affecting the markets on which we depend. 

Reach out to the Vape-Jet team today, and let’s optimize your operation now and secure your workflow for the long haul. 

While you’re at it, don’t forget to sign up for our monthly Re:Fill newsletter to get early access to company updates, product releases, and other exciting announcements. Follow us on the essentials, too: Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn.  

Interested in our new partner program? Learn more here. 

Categories
Laboratory Uncategorized Vape-Jet

Vape-Jet Know-How: How to Make Live Resin Vape Carts Efficiently

As vape cartridge markets mature and consumers develop more discerning tastes, manufacturers are switching from botanical terpene flavored distillate to true-to-strain cannabis-derived terpene, “live resin” formulations. While this might seem like an easy switch, producing live resin is a complex process that demands, like everything cannabis, we follow best practices. 

Who am I to discuss such complexities? Vape-Jet CSO Devon Reid, at your service. I am a chemist and engineer with a passion for optimizing workflows for the live resin process and fostering better customer experiences with science.  

Are you here because you’re wondering how to make live resin more efficiently? Perfect! Making vape cartridges has never been easier or more efficient than with our Vape-Jet 4.0; I’m here to share my expertise to ease the switch to or level-up your existing live resin vape cartridge process.
If you want to produce some pure, Walter White-esque cannabis cartridges with your Vape-Jet, you’ve come to the right place. Get ready for the ultimate guide on how to produce live resin vape carts more efficiently, predictably, and with higher quality than the competition.

Devon Reid on the set of Breaking Bad.
Speaking of Walter White, here’s a shot of Devon on the set of Breaking Bad from Walter’s brother-in-law Hank’s backyard.

Let’s talk chemistry. 

How to Make Live Resin: Common Problems

If a manufacturer already produces dabbable live-resin extracts in-house—via hydrocarbon (BHO) or rosin extraction—using these extracts as a feedstock for vape cartridges may seem simple.. However, the unrefined (i.e. not purified via distillation) nature of live resin extract presents some unique challenges when preparing it to produce vape cartridges. These nuances make efficient live resin vape cartridge production even harder to achieve than efficient distillate vape cartridge production.  

Vape-Jet: The most advanced fully-automatic vape cartridge filling machine. Click to learn more.
Why are pure distillate operations easier than live resin formulations? 

Filling vape cartridges with distillate-based formulations is a breeze with Vape-Jet. Since THC distillate is incredibly pure (typically over 90%), it performs reliably from batch to batch, especially when formulated with known quantities of isolated, botanical terpene blends. Why? Because THC distillate contains few extraction byproducts, making it thermally and chemically stable. 

In short, when we mix distillate with isolated terpenes, there is not much else in the formulation that can change how it behaves under heat and pressure. As a result, the formulation is chemically simple, which is why distillate performs so well during filling.  

Because of chemical simplicity and process predictability, Vape-Jet operators can use as little as 50C of heat and 50 to 60PSI of nitrogen pressure when filling distillate cartridges. This is almost half as much heat as other vape cartridge fillers, which cannot operate under pressure. With the ideal filling conditions made possible by a Vape-Jet, cannabinoids and terpenes are preserved from thermal degradation and oxidation, ensuring consistent product quality and filling speed. 

Unlike simple distillate, live resin and rosin extracts are unrefined, containing a complex mixture of extraction byproducts like lipids, phospholipids, chlorophyll, and carotenoids (in addition to cannabinoids and terpenes). These extraction byproducts result in a highly variable mixture depending on batch, strain, growing conditions, and extraction variables—never a good thing for quality control or scaling your production process.

How to decarb live resin for carts: can I just start filling?

First, we’ll start with the basics. Decarboxylation is the process of removing a carboxyl group from the cannabinoid, converting THCa to THC. Removal typically takes place before or during the distillation process, during which vacuum conditions efficiently remove the carboxyl group, in the form of carbon dioxide gas, from the oil.

If you simply decarboxylate bulk extract in an oven, you can make vape cartridges with the resulting oil, but the optimal filling parameters will vary wildly from batch-to-batch and your overall efficiency will suffer as a result. Some cons of bulk decarbing in open air could be degraded terpenes (burnt taste), degraded cannabinoids (appearance), not to mention reduced filling throughput. In the extreme case, several critical dispensing errors—from pump stalling to bubbly cartridges and lost product—can result.

Can I decarboxylate bulk, unrefined extract without vacuum pressure? 

Not a great idea. Without a vacuum, you’ll need a very long stirring and heating process to remove CO2. This usually means a substantial loss of terpenes to evaporation and oxidation, muting the flavor and darkening the color of the vape cartridges.  

Because cannabinoids are degraded and terpenes are lost, increased oil viscosity results in slower fill times. Furthermore, if this “no-vacuum decarboxylation process” is rushed, CO2 left in the solution will be agitated during the filling process, potentially leaving cartridges riddled with bubbles in the best case and spilling out of the cartridge in the worst case.

Up next? The unpredictability of the live resin process vs. distillate.

The Solution: Upstream Changes 

The complexity of live resin formulations, especially rosin, makes them less predictable than distillate and isolated terpene formulations. For example, live resin formulations with terpene concentrations over 10% are more susceptible to nitrogen absorption under pressure, potentially resulting in bubbly cartridges. As such, it is crucial to implement some upstream processes to prepare unrefined extracts for filling. Such processes control the formulation constituents and reduce variability, resulting in high-quality cartridges with a premium taste and better customer experiences.   

Live Resin Process Production Changes: Hydrocarbon Workflows

Since hydrocarbon producers usually have all the equipment for traditional wax, shatter, or diamonds-in-sauce extract production, they are well prepared to implement upstream changes to gain control over their live resin vape cartridge process. Yet some of our customers who produce hydrocarbon extract might not be familiar with the “liquid diamonds” approach to preparing extracts for vape cartridge filling machines, a multi-step solution with profound benefits. 

So next, we’ll go step-by-step on how to decarb THCA diamonds for vape cartridges (getting back into our yellow hazmat suit, Breaking Bad references again!). 

  1. Winterize during extraction to reduce lipids present in the bulk extract. A bit of color remediation media (such as carbon or silica) aids in reducing unwanted compounds in the bulk extract. 
  2. Purge the extract of solvent as usual in a warm vacuum oven and let crystals form.
    1. PRO TIP: place a cold trap between the oven and vacuum to reserve the evaporated terpenes for use later. These terpenes will be almost 100% pure.
  3. Separate the crystals from the sauce with gravity or assistance from a centrifuge.  
  4. Decarboxylate the crystals in an open container under vacuum in an oven. Processed in this way, the resulting THC will be greater than 95% pure (CC: Walter White). 
  5. Obtain Certificates of Analysis (COA) for both portions, sauce and liquid diamonds, then do some math to mix up a formulation with a consistent content of terpenes and cannabinoids; use some of the cold trap terpenes too to get the full-spectrum of terpenes. Aim for a cannabinoid to terpene ratio of 95:5 to 90:10.

A quick note on vacuum purging: as with all vacuum purging processes, when purging hydrocarbons from the separated sauce and decarboxylating isolated diamonds, closely monitor heat and vacuum to prevent foaming and loss of product. 

My suggestion: when decarboxylating the diamonds, start at a lower temperature and vacuum pressure until carbon dioxide begins to bubble. Once you have bubbling, slowly increase the temperature and vacuum pressure; the bubbling will start to subside until it ceases entirely.

What is the live resin filling process like?

When loaded into a Vape-Jet, this formulation behaves much more like a refined distillate and botanical terpene formulation. Why? Because when we separate the sauce and process the diamonds separately, we gain control of terpene content; we reduce batch and strain variability.  

Controlled Process vs Uncontrolled Process

The filling parameters on your Vape-Jet can be milder as well, resulting in a more flavorful and true-to-strain vape cartridge for connoisseur cannabis consumers. The leftover sauce can even be used to flavor more easily sourced cannabis distillates, generating options for a value-oriented SKU targeted toward more budget-conscious consumers.  

Distillate-with-sauce cartridges offer huge flavor improvements over botanically flavored distillate vape cartridges and are cheaper to produce than liquid-diamond-with-sauce vape carts. You can also use the leftover sauce in an MCT or coconut oil mixture to make strain-specific, precision-filled edible capsules with your Vape-Jet.

Rosin Workflows

Unlike hydrocarbon producers, rosin producers may have to obtain equipment that is not common to their process, like a precision oven (a toaster oven won’t cut it!). Since rosin is so valuable and usually has smaller batch sizes, the separate-decarboxylate-mix process might not be as appropriate due to the complexity and time needed to produce rosin diamonds.  

Are there other differences between hydrocarbon and rosin workflows?

Since there are no added solvents in rosin (only terpenes), the primary difference is the time needed to crystallize THCa; typically rosin requires partially decarbing the THCa so that the resulting THC and terpenes can act as a solvent that allow the remaining THCa to crystalize. Therefore, decarbing rosin in bulk, without separating cannabinoids and terpenes, is generally advised.

Okay, we have our equipment. Now what?

Generally speaking, you should heat bulk rosin in a sealed jar (Rosin Jar Tech) until it begins to liquify, separate, and decarboxylate. The first key to success here is to burp the jar frequently until the decarboxylation is complete, perhaps 24 hours at 70C (decarboxylation can happen hotter or colder, with less or more time accordingly; use your COAs to determine good times and temperatures!). To burp, simply loosen the lid until gas is heard rushing out, then tighten the lid; burp the jars at least 4-6 times while decarbing. Keeping the burps short with the lid still “on” will minimize terpene loss, minimize oxygen ingress, and maximize CO2 expulsion. If done correctly, the terpene content will actually increase at the end of the decarb, since CO2 is most of what leaves the extract.

Once the decarb is complete, the second key to success is to degas the warm rosin. Gently stirring by hand will release the rest of the dissolved CO2 from solution; the rosin should look nice and flat with few bubbles after a few minutes of stirring. PRO TIP: schedule your production schedule so that the rosin can be filled into vape cartridges immediately after the decarb and degas are complete to avoid multiple hot/cold/hot swings on the rosin and help reduce degradation.

Now, you can start filling with precision and confidence on your Vape-Jet, knowing your customers will receive a reliable, quality product that will satisfy all cannabis connoisseurs.

Start Filling: The Live Resin Process Finale

Coupled with our Vape-Jet, fully-automatic vape cartridge-filling machine, you can easily fill a variety of high-quality, great-tasting, and highly efficacious cannabis-derived vape cartridges, capsules, Dablicators, and precision-sauce-dosed diamond extracts. 

Sound good? I think so too, so why not contact us and optimize your vape cartridge production with the best filling machine in the game. I mean, you’ve already learned how to make live resin more efficiently than your competitors… So put the information to good use.

Don’t forget to keep up-to-date by signing up for our monthly Re:Fill newsletter to get early access to company updates, product releases, and other exciting announcements. While you’re at it, follow us on Facebook, Instagram, and Linkedin for updates, friendship, and cats.

Categories
Uncategorized Vape Hardware

Quality Assurance Considerations

The design and operating conditions of Vape-Jet 3.0 enable the reliable manufacture of high-quality vaporization cartridges which maintain the intended cannabinoid and terpene profiles until the point of consumption. No other automated filling solution has the degrees of freedom necessary to control dispensing accuracy whilst simultaneously preserving product integrity and quality.

Overview: Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Degradation

The problem of fluid dynamics is the primary obstacle to reliably filling a vaporization cartridge. The dynamics of cannabis derived fluids varies greatly from highly viscous to free-flowing, with every possibility in between depending primarily upon the concentration of cannabinoids (THC, CBD) relative to terpenes (linalool, myrcene, etc.). Fluid viscosity generally decreases with increasing temperature, and increases with decreasing temperature; i.e. warm fluids flow more easily than cool fluids.

The problem of thermal degradation is often an afterthought in the task of filling vaporization cartridges. Both cannabinoids and terpenes are susceptible to thermal degradation, with terpenes being especially vulnerable to heat in the presence of oxygen. McGraw, Hemingway, et al reported in a 1999 study of terpene thermal degradation that 23-37% of α-pinene is destroyed at temperatures between 90-120C, other terpenes exhibited degradation of as little as 7% or as much as 100% under the same conditions. Coffman and Gentner reported that THC degradation of 8-14% occurs at temperatures above 85C, with similar figures for CBD degradation; the result is a dramatically increased proportion of CBN, the oxidized product. By comparison, THC degradation at 65C resulted in only 3.4% loss, or 159% less degradation than 85C, or 300% less degradation than 105C.

Profile Preservation

The desire for ever increasing throughput has resulted in the adoption of extreme operating conditions by competing vaporization cartridge filling solutions. Competitors routinely make claims of filling 100 cartridges in as little as 2-5 minutes, which is completely achievable with operating temperatures in the neighborhood of 90C-120C. However, as has been illustrated, these temperatures will invariably result in thermal degradation of both cannabinoids and terpenes, resulting in a not-true-to-strain effect for the end user of vaporization cartridges filled in this manner. Not only is the profile different from the originating whole flower, the batch-to-batch and inter-batch variability will also be higher since these extreme temperatures create time-dependent changes in the overall profile. For example, the cartridges filled at Time-0 at 90C will be substantially different than the cartridges filled at the end of that batch.

Vape-Jet is designed to maintain strain specific profiles of cannabinoids and terpenes, whilst striking a balance in throughput via increased automation and gentler operating conditions. Vape-Jet is able to operate at 50C-70C due to the utilization of pressurized Modified Atmosphere Processing (MAP) techniques. With the assistance of pressurized nitrogen, mixed cannabinoids and terpenes are able to be accurately dispensed into vaporization cartridges with significantly reduced thermal degradation and oxidation products. The pressurized product line results in a modified fluid dynamic system, enabling reduced heating to create flow from reservoir to cartridge.

Quality Control and Assurance

The reduced operating temperature of Vape-Jet has the added manufacturing benefit of decreased cartridge leakage, since the product cools immediately upon filling, the atomizer doesn’t become over-saturated before the cap can be installed. Together with pre-fill inspection, Vape-Jet provides unrivaled reduction in waste and batchwise variability. Cartridges filled with Vape-Jet are more true to strain for the end user than any cartridge filled by a competing device. The filling accuracy of Vape-Jet, both in terms of quantity and quality, is unrivaled and assures that the customer receives exactly what was purchased, no more or less.

References:

G.W. McGraw, R.W. Hemingway, et al. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Thermal Degradation of Terpenes: Camphene, Δ-Carene, Limonene, and α-Terpinene. Retrieved from: https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/1366

C.B. Coffman, W.A. Gentner. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Cannabis Sativa L.: Effect of Drying Time and Temperature on Cannabinoid Profile of Stored Leaf Tissue. Retrieved from: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1974-01-01_1_page006.html

Categories
Laboratory Uncategorized

Laboratory Technique – Rotary Evaporator Optimization

This article explains the general process to achieve the maximum possible solvent recovery rate from any rotary evaporator.

Introduction

Rotary evaporation is a powerful technique for quickly removing solvent from a solution of cannabis or hemp extract. There are two distinct methods of operating a rotary evaporator: batch or continuous; choosing the correct one for the task is crucial. For the purposes typically required in the cannabis industry, i.e. winterization or color remediation of extracts, the necessary volume of solvent to be recovered invariably necessitates a continuous style of operation for rotary evaporators. Not only can solvent recovery rates be increased by 2-4x with this mode of operation, but overall throughput is increased as well since vacuum is maintained until the rotary flask (or solvent recovery flask) is ready to be emptied. 

Continuous Operation

In order to achieve the highest possible solvent recovery rate, several individual rates of the rotary evaporation process must be tuned to match or complement each other. The defining characteristic of continuous operation is the slow and constant addition of fresh solution into the rotary flask. Only as much solvent as can be evaporated and condensed should be added to the rotary flask per unit of time. In other words, the volume solvent dripping off the condenser should be equal to the volume of solvent containing solution dripping into the rotary flask.

Important Constants:

  1. Heat – the water bath provides heat to the evaporating surface of the rotary flask. Having enough hot water to cover a large area of the rotary flask is essential.
  2. Vacuum – the vacuum in the system can be thought of as essentially constant if the pump is of sufficient capacity. Having a large enough vacuum pump is vital.
  3. Cold – the condenser removes heat from the vapor and forces it to drip into the collection flask. Having a high cooling capacity is the most important factor.

These important constants are listed in order of increasing difficulty and cost to achieve. Heating water is a very easy and low cost part of the system, the vacuum pump is more specialized but relatively simple, while the refrigeration unit is the most complex and costly component. Having insufficient cooling capacity will dramatically decrease the maximum rate of solvent recovery possible from any rotary evaporation system.

The greater the difference in temperature (ΔT) between the hot (evaporation) and cold (condensation) sides of the system, the faster the solvent can be recovered.  

Ideally, the refrigeration unit of the rotary evaporator system will be large enough so that ΔT behaves as a constant during operation at maximum recovery; in reality, the refrigeration fluid will become hotter as evaporation and condensation begin, until it settles at its operating temperature. As the proportion of extract in the boiling flask increases and solvent decreases, the rate of evaporation will also decrease, resulting in a lower refrigerant temperature.

Important Rates:

Keeping the constants in mind, there are several factors which must be tuned in order to achieve maximum recovery. The ΔT for each system is unique and largely dependent upon the refrigeration unit, tuning the following rates to keep ΔT from changing is the essence of continuous operation of a rotary evaporator.

  1. Rotation – the rate at which solution is exposed to warm surface area to evaporate.
  2. Feed – the rate of addition of fresh solution into the boiling flask, limited by the rate of Evaporation. 
  3. Evaporation – how fast solvent transforms from liquid to gas, determined as a function of Rotation and Feed, in combination with Heat and Vacuum.
  4. Condensation – how fast solvent transforms from gas to liquid, determined as a function of Cooling and Vacuum.

In order to achieve maximum solvent recovery, the operator must tune Rotation and Feed rates such that Evaporation and Condensation rates become equal with the highest possible ΔT.

Example

  1. Attach a length of food-grade tubing to both sides of the Feed Valve.
    1. The rotary flask side of tubing should extend beyond the neck and slightly down the bulb, this reduces splash.
    2. The external side of tubing should be long enough to reach the bottom of the beaker or flask that contains your solution of extract and solvent (i.e. ethanol).
    3. Let your solution come to room temperature prior to solvent recovery, if possible. 
  2. Heat the water bath to at least 60C.
    1. Ensure there is enough water to come up almost to the level of the rotary flask neck, covering 30-40% of the flask when fully lowered.
  3. Turn on the refrigeration unit to its lowest possible setting, below 0C is ideal.
  4. Turn on the vacuum pump.
  5. Set flask rotation to about 100 revolutions per minute (RPM).
  6. Once the refrigerator and vacuum are as low as they can be, flask rotating, and with the external tubing in your solution containing beaker, slowly open the Feed Valve.
    1. Adjust feed valve to a very fine trickle, such that a band of extract forms immediately on the inner surface of the rotating flask.
    2. If a puddle forms or grows within the first few minutes, close the Feed Valve slightly.
    3. A puddle of extract rich solution will begin to form after several minutes, adjust RPM as needed to keep the puddle at the bottom of the flask.
    4. If the puddle is too rich in extract, the Feed Rate can be increased; if the puddle is too rich in solvent, decrease the Feed Rate.
  7. Monitor the refrigerator temperature throughout and adjust the Feed Valve accordingly, i.e. reduce Feed if temperature increases.
  8. Once the rotary flask approaches 30-50% full of extract rich solution, the Recovery Rate will decrease.
    1. Close Feed Valve to reduce chance of boil over, and continue rotary evaporation on the solution in the rotary flask until the desired level of completion.
  9. Remove and collect the extract from the rotary flask as normal with heat, gravity, and silicone scrapers.